Watercolor or aquarelle from French is an interesting painting method. A watercolor is the medium or the resulting artwork in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood and canvas.
· Washes and glazes- In watercolors, a wash is the application of diluted paint in a manner that disguises or effaces individual brush strokes to produce a unified area of color. A glaze is the application of one paint color over a previous paint layer, with the new paint layer at a dilution sufficient to allow the first color to show through.
· Wet in wet- Wet in wet includes any application of paint or water to an area of the painting that is already wet with either paint or water. The essential idea is to wet the entire sheet of paper, laid flat, until the surface no longer wicks up water but lets it sit on the surface, then to plunge in with a large brush saturated with paint.
· Drybrush- Drybrush is the watercolor painting technique for precision and control. The brush tip must be wetted but not overcharged with paint, and the paint must be just fluid enough to transfer to the paper with slight pressure and without dissolving the paint layer underneath.
· Diluting and mixing watercolor paints-The densest possible color is obtained by using the paint as it comes from the tube. The lightest color is obtained by using paint heavily diluted with water or applied to the paper and then blotted away with a paper towel.
· Minimal palettes- Modern approach to the six paint palette ("hexachrome" palette) jettisons the "impure paint" rationalization and simply focuses on obtaining the largest gamut from a limited selection of available pigments.
· Paint lightfastness- Lightfastness is the ability of a pigment to retain its original color appearance under exposure to light. This is usually indicated as a numerical rating, from I (high lightfastness) to IV (low lightfastness) on the paint tube.
Charcoal is one of the oldest art mediums, having been used for cave drawings by early man. Back then, charcoal was used in the form of the ends of burned sticks. Today’s charcoal artists have more modern options: compressed charcoal, vine charcoal and powdered charcoal.
The most commonly used charcoal is compressed charcoal, which is powdered charcoal that has been mixed with gum binder and then compressed into sticks. The amount of binder used determines how hard or soft the stick will be. This is also the kind used in charcoal pencils. Vine charcoal is made from burning pieces of wood into harder or softer consistencies. It tends to be messier than compressed charcoal. Powdered charcoal is exactly what it sounds like – charcoal in powder form that is great for covering large areas.
Charcoal drawing is a well-recognized media. Very professional-looking black-white images can be drawn just with a little chunk of charcoal and eraser. Charcoal is also a good way of learning gray gradients and lighting techniques. Artists like Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Georgia O’Keeffe, and Ernst Barlach used charcoal to create high-impact images.
Charcoal Drawing Tips:-
Charcoal smears easily - This is a blessing and a curse. If you can’t avoid resting your hand on the page while drawing, tape the paper to a wall and draw vertically instead.
Use workable fixative - This will reduce the amount of smudging to your image while also allowing you to continue drawing.
Work backwards - Cover an entire page in charcoal and “draw” with an eraser.
Oils have been a favorite of painters since their introduction during the Renaissance. Oil paints are extremely versatile. They can be used thickly in impasto or extremely thinly in glazes; they can be opaque or transparent.
Here are a few tips to get the most from the oil paints:-
The proportion of oil medium should be increased for each subsequent layer in an oil painting – known as painting 'fat over lean' – because the lower layers absorb oil from the layers on top of them. If the upper layers dry faster than the lower ones, they can crack.
Avoid using Ivory Black for an underpainting or sketching as it dries much slower than other oil paints.
Pigments containing lead, cobalt, and manganese accelerate drying. They can be mixed with other colors to speed up drying and are ideal for under layers.
Use linseed oil for an underpainting or in the bottom layers of any oil painting done wet-on-dry as it dries the most thoroughly of all the oils used as mediums.
Avoid using linseed oil as a medium in whites and blues as it has a marked tendency to yellow, which is most notable with light colors. Poppy oil is recommended for light colors as it has the least tendency to yellow (although it dries slower).
Don't dry oil paintings in dark. This may cause a thin film of oil to rise to the surface, yellowing it. (This can be removed by exposure to bright daylight.)
If, as the paint on your palette dries it forms a lot of wrinkles, too much oil (medium) has been added.
If you're not sure whether a bottle of mineral or white spirits is suitable for oil painting, put a tiny quantity on a piece of paper and let it evaporate. If it evaporates without leaving any residue, stain, or smell, it should be fine.
If you want to clean away a layer of oil paint or oil varnish, use alcohol, which is a powerful solvent.
Remember that you can paint with oils without using solvents, using brush pressure to spread the paint out thinly, only oil as a medium and to rinse your brush.
Acrylic painting techniques refer to diverse styles of manipulating and working with polymer-based acrylic paints. These types of paint eliminate the need for turpentine and gesso, and can be applied directly onto canvas.
Creating fluid paints
Fluid paints can be used like watercolors or for glazing and washes. To create a more fluid texture, water is added to the paint. The ratio of paint to water depends on how thick the glaze is expected to be. An opaque glaze or paint consists of more paint than water, and will give a more solid color. A translucent glaze or paint will be the opposite, consisting of slightly more water than the opaque version, and will have a smoother texture. Translucent glazes show more of the colors underneath the paint compared to opaque glazes.
Acrylic paint glazes are often used to create more depth in an image. These types of paints are light enough when brushed onto canvas to show the layers underneath. This technique is commonly used to create more realistic images. It is best to wait for each layer to dry thoroughly before applying another coat. This will prevent the paint from smearing or leaving unwanted smudge marks. After the application of several layers, rubbing alcohol can be brushed or sprayed on to reveal colors from earlier layers.
Pour painting is an innovative way to use acrylic paints to create an art piece. Instead of using tools like brushes or knives to create a piece of art, fluid paints can be poured directly onto the surface and the canvas tilted to move the paint around. Pouring paints allow for the colors to blend naturally as they come in contact with each other. This technique can be done either one color at a time, or with multiple paints to maximize color blending.
Preventing paint from drying out
Acrylics are often favored because they dry faster on canvas than oil paints. However, in some circumstances, the artist may want the paint to stay moist longer. A trick to keep paints from drying out is to spray a light mist of water over them intermittently.